Mind/Body/Movement Laboratory

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Research Team

About the Team

Peter Wayne, Principal Investigator

Daniel Litrownik, Project Manager and Lab Coordinator, received his B.A. in Psychology from Emory University. He brings 10+ years’ experience in coordinating clinical trials of mind-body interventions with different patient populations. He is most interested in the development and refinement of mind-body interventions for specific patient populations, and the optimization of recruitment and retention strategies for pilot feasibility studies and larger efficacy trials. He is a long-term practitioner of meditation and Tai Chi and finds meaning in bridging his personal and professional interests.

EunMee (Amy) Yang, T-32 Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, is a licensed acupuncturist and diplomate of Oriental Medicine. Her research interests are primarily focused on evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture for improving cancer-related symptoms and exploring the biological basis and biophysical properties of acupuncture points.

Dennis Muñoz Vergara, a T-32 Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, is a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and an animal pathologist and a certified Hatha yoga instructor. He is interested in translational research using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo animal and human models to understand the basic biological mechanism of stretching and its effects on inflammation. His current human research study attempts to isolate the stretching component of yoga and apply an acute intervention (one hour of stretching) to explore changes in systemic inflammatory markers and lipid mediators.

Yan Ma, T-32 Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, received her MD in integrative medicine, and specialized in sleep medicine and clinical psychology. She is interested in mind-body interventions and techniques which are capable of capturing system-level complex physiological dynamics.

Weronika Grabowska, Research Assistant graduated with a BA in Human Ecology from College of the Atlantic and received her MPH with focus on Epidemiology and Biostatistics from Boston University School of Public Health in 2019. She has a background in genetic research on neuroinflammation and its impact in Alzheimer’s Disease development. Since joining the Osher Center in 2019, Weronika has been working on various projects pertaining to chronic pain, gait measures, inflammation, as well as utilization of chiropractic care as a fall prevention strategy. She has also provided support in administration, recruitment, and analysis of other ongoing research projects.

Julie Connor, Research Assistant, received a B.S. in neuroscience from the University of Vermont. She is interested in the role of exercise, mindfulness and integrative medicine in treating pain, stress and anxiety.

Brian Gow, Senior Research Assistant, received his B.S. in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.  He is interested in modalities which improve and biomarkers which capture holistic health.

Research Overview

The Mind-Body-Movement (MBM) laboratory explores the interdependence of movement, posture, cognition and emotion in health, aging and rehabilitation. Our research begins with the assumption that health relies on the complex integration of these and other physiological systems, enabling us to function and adapt to the demands of everyday life. Conversely, age-related decline and disease is thought to result from progressive multi-system impairment, leading to decreased physical and cognitive function and reduced resilience to stress.

Taking advantage of a rich collaborative network of laboratories across the Harvard Medical School, and drawing on conceptual models, quantitative methods, and experimental designs grounded in systems biology, our research has focused on evaluating the clinical impact and physiological basis of multiple integrative medicine (IM) therapies.

Current work centers around the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises, manual therapies, and acupuncture for the prevention, rehabilitation, and symptom management of a broad range of chronic health conditions including age- and Parkinson’s disease-related balance impairments, cognitive decline, chronic back and neck pain, cardiovascular diseases, migraine headaches, and cancer.

Research on these, ongoing research studies, and related topics are summarized below.

Current Areas of Research

Tai Chi, neuromusculoskeletal health, and balance

A central and ongoing focus of our research has been evaluating the safety, efficacy and potentially unique biomechanical, physiological and behavioral mechanisms through which Tai Chi may improve chronic neuromuscular and musculoskeletal conditions.

In one early NIH funded study, we developed and evaluated a simplified Tai Chi training protocol for highly impaired patients with vestibulopathy. We found Tai Chi improved dynamic postural control and impacted neuromuscular mechanisms that complement vestibulo–ocular reflex mechanisms targeted in standard vestibular rehabilitation.[1,2].

Another NIH funded trial in postmenopausal osteopenic women demonstrated that Tai Chi modifes multiple objective predictors of fracture risk.[3,4]. Functional and fall risk benefits of Tai Chi were also supported in another pilot RCT of frail elders residing in assisted living facilities.[5]  However, the follow-up NIH funded MiWish Study, a 5-year trial evaluating yearlong Tai Chi vs. health promotion programs in subsidized low-income elderly housing facilities failed to objectively show Tai Chi-related benefits in functional performance,[6] despite participants qualitatively reporting meaningful changes in their everyday lives.[7]

Representative publications

  1. McGibbon C, Krebs D, Parker S, Scarborough D, Wayne P, Wolf S. Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: preliminary report. BMC Neurology. 2005;5(1):3.
  2. McGibbon C, Krebs D, Wolf S, Wayne P, Scarborough D, Parker S. Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation effects on gaze and whole-body stability. Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation. 2004;14(6):467-478.
  3. Wayne PM, Buring JE, Davis RB, et al. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010;11:40.
  4. Wayne PM, Kiel DP, Buring JE, et al. Impact of Tai Chi exercise on multiple fracture-related risk factors in post-menopausal osteopenic women: a pilot pragmatic, randomized trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12:7.
  5. Manor B, Lough M, Gagnon MM, Cupples A, Wayne PM, Lipsitz LA. Functional benefits of tai chi training in senior housing facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(8):1484-1489.
  6. Lipsitz LA, Macklin EA, Travison TG, Manor B, Gagnon P, Tsai T, Aizpurúa II, Lo OY, Wayne PM. A cluster randomized trial of Tai Chi vs health education in subsidized housing: The MI-WiSH study. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 2019 Sep;67(9):1812-1819.
  7. Lo OY, Conboy LA, Rukhadze A, et al. In the eyes of those who were randomized: Perceptions of disadvantaged older adults in a Tai Chi trial. Gerontologist. 2020;60(4):672‐
  8. You T, Ogawa EF, Thapa S, Cai Y, Zhang H, Nagae S, Yeh GY, Wayne PM, Shi L, Leveille SG. Tai Chi for older adults with chronic multisite pain: A randomized controlled pilot study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.
  9. Song R, Ahn S, Lee M, Wayne PM, Sohn MK. Exploring the adaptability of Sun-style Tai Chi to stroke rehabilitation in Korean community dwelling stroke survivors: A mixed-methods feasibility study. Rehabilitation Nursing Journal.

Tai Chi and cognitive-motor interdependence

An extensive body of research now supports that fall risk and cognition are highly interdependent, and processes like executive function, gait health and balance are correlated and predictive of one another. This emerging view supports a particularly unique role for mind-body exercise like Tai Chi, which strategically targets both cognitive and motor processes, as well as their coordination (e.g., through training in attention shifting, multitasking, and goal setting).

Our group led the first meta-analysis supporting a positive effect of Tai Chi on cognitive function.[1] With support from an NIH study on healthy aging, our team also evaluated cognitive-motor interactions during gait and balance using a dual task paradigm in Tai Chi experts and Tai Chi naïve older adults. We found that when participants were asked to walk while simultaneously doing a complex mental task, Tai Chi experts exhibited significantly lower stride time variability, a sensitive predictor of falls.[2] Studies of lower extremity muscle activation during walking suggest that Tai Chi’s impact of gait health and cognitive-motor interdependence may result, in part, to more efficient coordination between antagonistic muscles as measure with electromyography (EMG).[3]  Parallel findings on Tai Chi’s impact on balance and gait health have been observed in studies of individuals with Parkinson’s disease.[4,5].

Representative publications

  1. Wayne PM, Walsh JN, Taylor-Piliae RE, et al. Effect of tai chi on cognitive performance in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(1):25-39.
  2. Wayne PM, Hausdorff JM, Lough M, et al. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2015;9:332.
  3. Osypiuk K, Kilgore K, Ligibel J, Vergfara-Diaz G, Bonato P, Wayne PM. “Making peace with our bodies”: A qualitative Analysis of breast cancer survivors’ experiences with Qigong mind-body exercise. In Press to Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  4. Song, RN, Grabowska W, Park M, Osypiuk K, Vergara-Diaz G, Bonato P, Hausdorff JM, Fox M, Sudarsky LR, Macklin EA, Wayne PM. The impact of Tai Chi and Qigong mind-body exercises on motor and non-motor function and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 2017;41:3-13.
  5. Vergara-Diaz G, Osypiuk K, Hausdorff JM, Bonato P, Gow BJ, Miranda JG, Sudarsky LR, Tarsy D, Fox MD, Gardiner P, Thomas CA, Macklin EA, Wayne PM. Tai Chi for reducing dual-task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk in Parkinson’s Disease: A pilot randomized controlled Trial. Global Advances in Health and Medicine. 2018;7.
  6. Jor’dan AJ, Manor B, Hausdorff JM, Lipsitz LA, Habtemariam D, Novak V, Wayne PM. Long-term Tai Chi training is associated with better dual-task postural control and cognition in aging adults. Advances in Mind Body Medicine. 2018 Summer;32(3):4-11
  7. Osypiuk K, Thompson E, Wayne PM. Can Tai Chi and Qigong postures shape our mood? Toward an embodied cognition framework for mind-body research. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience. 2018;12:174.

Tai Chi and cardiorespiratory health

Working in close collaboration with Dr. Gloria Yeh, the MBM lab has contributed significantly to our understanding of how Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises impact cardiorespiratory health. This work began with a pilot study of Tai Chi for systolic heart failure (HF) patients, which demonstrated safety and benefits to HF-related quality of life (QOL) and exercise capacity.[1]

A subsequent larger NIH funded trial that reported, when compared to an attention-matched educational control, Tai Chi improved HF-related QOL, exercise self-efficacy and mood.[2] A third study in diastolic HF patients evaluated the importance of metabolic intensity, and found that even when compared with a higher intensity aerobic intervention, Tai Chi resulted in greater improvements in exercise capacity and QOL.[3]

The impact of Tai Chi, isolated mind-body breathing exercises, and group walking in patients with COPD are currently being evaluated in two independent NIH funded studies.[4,5].  We are also collaborating with Dr. Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher and colleagues at Brown University to evaluate Tai Chi as an alternative exercise for cardiac rehabilitation.[6,7].

Representative publications.

  1. Yeh GY, Wood MJ, Lorell BH, et al. Effects of Tai Chi mind-body movement therapy on functional status and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Medicine. 2004;117(8):541-548.
  2. Yeh GY, McCarthy EP, Wayne PM, et al. Tai Chi exercise in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2011;171(8):750-757.
  3. Yeh GY, Wood MJ, Wayne PM, et al. Tai Chi in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Congestive Heart Failure. 2013;19(2):77-84.
  4. Moy ML, Wayne PM, Litrownik D, et al. Long-term exercise after pulmonary rehabilitation (LEAP): design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 8; 2015.
  5. Yeh GY, Wayne PM, et. al. Tai chi mind-body exercise in patients with COPD: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2014;15:337
  6. Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Wayne PM, Dunsiger S, Krol J, Breault C, Bock BC, Wu WC, Yeh GY. Tai Chi is a promising exercise option for patients with coronary heart disease declining cardiac rehabilitation. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2017;6.
  7. Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Wayne P, Bock BC, et al. Design and methods of the Gentle Cardiac Rehabilitation Study – A behavioral study of Tai Chi exercise for patients not attending cardiac rehabilitation. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 2015;43:243-251.

Integrative therapies and chronic pain

Another area of focus in the MBM lab is translational research in musculoskeletal pain. One early NIH funded observational study based at the Osher Clinical Center for Integrative Therapies evaluated the effectiveness of care provided by our uniquely trained integrative care team [1, 2] on symptoms and function in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, compared with a control group of CLBP patients receiving care elsewhere within BWH. In addition to observing clinical benefits, our findings explored economic implications.[3]

In another completed study of CLBP patients supported by an NIH career development grant awarded to Dr. Eric Jacobson, we found that the manual therapy Structural Integration (SI, aka Rolfing) leads to improvements in disability and pain.[4] We also collaborated on a recent trial of Tai Chi for chronic neck pain with researchers at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany. Findings support that Tai Chi is effective in reducing neck pain and disability and point to improved postural awareness as a contributing mechanism.[5, 6].

More recently, we completed a pilot study evaluating Qigong for post-mastectomy pain in breast cancer survivors.Both clinical and self-reported qualitative findings highlight the remarkable impact multimodal mind-body therapies can have on the complex constellations of physical and psychosocial symptoms of cancer survivors.[7, 8].

We have also begun studying the impact of multimodal chiropractic care for episodic migraines. Results of a systemic review and a completed pilot randomized trial suggest chiropractic care is a promising interventions for reducing migraine frequency and disability, and improving quality of life. [9, 10, 11, 12.]

Representative publications

  1. Wayne PM, Eisenberg DM, Osypiuk K, Gow BJ, Witt CM, Davis RB, Buring JE. A multidisciplinary integrative medicine team in the treatment of chronic low-back pain: An observational comparative effectiveness study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.0002.
  2. O’Connor B, Eisenberg DM, Buring JE, Liang C, Osypiuk K, Levy DB, Wayne PM. Within-team patterns of communication and referral in multimodal treatment of chronic low back pain patients by an integrative care team. Global Advances in Health and Medicine. 2015;4:36-45.
  3. Wayne PM, Buring JE, Eisenberg DM, Osypiuk K, Gow BJ, Davis RB, Witt CM, Reinhold T; Cost-effectiveness of a team-based integrative medicine approach to the treatment of back pain. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
  4. Jacobson E, Meleger A, Bonato P, Wayne PM, Langevin H, Kaptchuk TJ and Davis RB. Structural Integration as an adjunct to outpatient rehabilitation for chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized pilot clinical trial. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015: doi.org/10.
  5. Lauche R, Stumpe C, Fehr J, Cramer H, Cheng YC, Wayne PM, Rampp T, Langhorst J, Dobos G. The effects of Tai Chi and neck exercises in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain: A randomized controlled trial Journal of Pain. 2016; 17(9):1013-27.
  6. Lauche R, Wayne PM, Fehr J, Stumpe C, Dobos G Cramer H. Does postural awareness contribute to exercise-induced improvements in neck pain intensity? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial evaluating Tai Chi and neck exercises. 2016.
  7. Osypiuk K, Ligibel J, Giobbie-Hurder A, Vergara-Diaz G, Bonato P, Quinn R, Ng W, Wayne PM. Qigong Mind-Body Exercise as a biopsychosocial therapy for persistent post-surgical pain in breast cancer: A pilot study. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2020 Jan-Dec;19.
  8. Wayne PM, Gow BJ, Hou F, Ma Y, Hausdorff JM, Lo J, Rist PM, Peng CK, Lipsitz LA, Novak V, Manor B. Tai Chi training’s effect on lower extremity muscle co-contraction during single- and dual-task gait: Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies. In Review
  9. Rist PM, Hernandez A, Bernstein C, Kowalski M, Osypiuk K, Vining R, Long CR, Goertz C, Song R, Wayne PM. The impact of spinal manipulation on migraine pain and disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019 Apr;59(4):532-542.
  10. Beaton-Starr M, Rist PM, Connor JP, Wayne PM, Osypiuk K, Bernstein C. Development and implementation of the integrative toolbox for headache management. 2020 Apr;60(4):771-775.
  11. Bernstein C, Wayne PM, Rist PM, Osypiuk K, Hernandez A, Kowalski M. Integrating chiropractic care into the treatment of migraine headaches in a tertiary care hospital: A case series. Global Advances in Health and Medicine. 2019 Mar 28;8.
  12. Connor JP, Bernstein C, Kilgore K, Rist PM, Osypiuk K, Kowalski M, Wayne PM. Perceptions of chiropractic care among women with migraine: A qualitative sub-study using a grounded theory framework. In Press to Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics.
  13. You T, Ogawa EF, Thapa S, Cai Y, Yeh GY, Wayne PM, Shi L, Leveille SG. Effects of Tai Chi on beta endorphin and inflammatory markers in older adults with chronic pain: An exploratory study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2019 Aug 20.
  14. Tick H, Nielsen A, Pelletier KR, Bonakdar R, Simmons S, Glick R, Ratner E, Lemmon RL, Wayne P, Zador V; Pain task force of the academic consortium for integrative medicine and health. Evidence-based nonpharmacologic strategies for comprehensive pain care: the Consortium Pain Task Force white paper. Explore (NY). 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2018.02.001.
  15. Eisenberg DE, Kaptchuk T, Post D, Hrbek A, O’Connor B, Osypiuk K, Wayne PM, Buring JE, Levy D. Establishing an integrative medicine program within an academic health center: Essential considerations. Academic Medicine. 2016; 91(9):1223-30.
  16. Wells RE, Burch R, Paulsen RH, Wayne PM, Houle TT, Louder E. Meditation for Migraines: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. 2014:54:1484-95.

Physiological complexity

Research in the MBM lab draws heavily on a systems biology framework and related quantitative tools for studying IM therapies. In two seminal papers, we framed Tai Chi as a multimodal intervention that targets multiple physiological systems and delivers what we refer to as multiple ‘active ingredients’.[1, 2].In these and in subsequent publications, we also highlight the need for translational biomarkers that inform cross-system therapeutic effects.[3] To address these needs, we have forged collaborations with the Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics in Medicine and the Center for Dynamical Biomarkers, both based at HMS.

Working closely with leaders and faculty of these centers, especially Drs. CK Peng, Lew Lipstiz, Andrew Ahn, and Jeff Hausdorff, we have begun to collaborate on studies to evaluate how complexity-based metrics of physiological dynamics inform how Tai Chi and related multimodal therapies impact system-wide changes.

One NIH funded study characterized the impact of Tai Chi on center of pressure (COP) dynamics during balance tasks and found that multiscale entropy (MSE) measures of COP better discriminated the effects of both long- and short-term training in Tai Chi, when compared to traditional measures of sway.[4] Another study on sway led by a Dr. Manor, reported that MSE of COP, but not traditional sway parameters were associated with functional changes in gait in individuals with peripheral neuropathy that undertook Tai Chi training.[5]

Our lab has also used detrended fluctuation analyses (DFA) to characterize long-range correlations and fractal-like scaling in gait stride time dynamics.  We found that Tai Chi experts exhibited greater degrees of fractal-like walking patterns, which is other studies has been associated with healthier aging and reduced risk of neurodegenerative disease.[6]

Most recently, we have applied a modified version of MSE to analyze the impact of long- and short-term Tai Chi training on complexity in heart rate dynamics.  We found that compared to Tai Chi naïve older adults, Tai Chi experts had a significantly higher overall complexity index and higher entropy at multiple individual time scales.  More modest improvements were observed following short-term Tai Chi training.  Higher heart rate complexity measures have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events.  Of note, we did not observe any effects of Tai Chi on traditional time domain measures of heart rate variability. [7]

 

 

Representative publications

  1. Wayne PM, Kaptchuk TJ. Challenges inherent to Tai Chi Research: Part I–Tai Chi as a complex multi-component intervention. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008;14:95-102.
  2. Wayne PM, Kaptchuk TJ. Challenges inherent to the Tai Chi Research: Part II — Defining the intervention and optimal study design. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008;14:191-7.
  3. Wayne PM, Manor B, Novak V, Costa M, Hausdorff JM, Goldberger AL, Ahn AC, Yeh GY, Peng CK, Lough M, Davis RB, Quilty MT, Lipsitz LA. A systems biology approach to studying Tai Chi, physiological complexity and healthy aging: Design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 2013;34:21-34.
  4. Wayne PM, Gow BJ, Costa MD, et al. Complexity-based measures inform effects of Tai Chi training on standing postural control: Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e114731.
  5. Manor B, Lipsitz LA, Wayne PM, Peng CK, Li L. Complexity-based measures inform tai chi’s impact on standing postural control in older adults with peripheral neuropathy. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;13:87.
  6. Gow BJ, Hausdorff JM, Manor B, Lipsitz LA, Macklin EA, Bonato P, Novak V, Peng CK, Ahn AC, Wayne PM. Can Tai Chi training impact fractal stride time dynamics, an index of gait health, in older adults? Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies. PLoS One. 2017;12: e0186212.
  7. Ma Y, Wu CW, Peng CK, Ahn A, Bertisch SM, Lipsitz LA, Yeh GY, Manor B, Novak V, Hausdorff JM, Gow B, Wayne PM. Complexity-based measures of heart rate dynamics in older adults following long and short-term Tai Chi training: Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies. Health Science Reports 2019 May 16;9(1):7500.

Acupuncture research

Research in acupuncture has involved a long-standing collaboration with the New England School of Acupuncture, as well as other HMS laboratories.  One early trial demonstrated potential for improvement with acupuncture of upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors;1 a companion fMRI study reported associated changes in motor cortex activation.2 This trial was also one of the first to employ a formal interdisciplinary consensus approach to develop validated, manualized verum and sham acupuncture treatment protocols.3

 

Another trial reported that Japanese style acupuncture reduces pain and improves QOL in adolescents with endometriosis.4 With support from an NIH, we collaborated with Dr. Weidong Lu on a sham-controlled RCT that concluded acupuncture may reduce chemoradiation induced neutropenia in gynecological cancers.5

Another collaboration with Dr. Lu demonstrated safety and feasibility of acupuncture for dysphagia in head and neck cancer.6   Other acupuncture research led by Dr. Andrew Ahn (T32 fellow) explored biophysical mechanisms of acupuncture.7, 8.

More generally, we have contributed to the acupuncture research through White Papers that tackle challenging methodological issues and summarizing the state of the field. 9, 10, 11, 12. A recent concept paper co-authored by Drs. Langevin and Wayne entitled “What’s the Point”, critically evaluates the evidence base for acupuncture points and sets out an agenda for more rigorous research on this neglected topic.13

 

Representative publications

  1. Wayne PM, Krebs DE, Macklin EA, et al. Acupuncture for upper-extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke: a randomized sham-controlled study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2005;86(12):2248-2255.
  2. Schaechter JD, Connell BD, Stason WB, et al. Correlated change in upper limb function and motor cortex activation after verum and sham acupuncture in patients with chronic stroke. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2007;13(5):527-532.
  3. Schnyer RN, Wayne PM, Kaptchuk TJ, Cheng X, Zhang Z, Stason WB. Standardization of individualized treatments in a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for stroke rehabilitation. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2006;12(2):106-109.
  4. Wayne PM, Kerr CE, Schnyer RN, et al. Japanese-style acupuncture for endometriosis-related pelvic pain in adolescents and young women: results of a randomized sham-controlled trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2008;21(5):247-257.
  5. Lu W, Matulonis UA, Doherty-Gilman A, et al. Acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancies: a pilot randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009;15(7):745-753.
  6. Lu WD, Wayne PM, Davis RB, Buring JE, Li H, Macklin E, Lorch JH, Burke E, Haddad TC, Goguen LA, Rosenthal DS, Tishler RB, Posner RM, Haddad RI. Acupuncture for Chemoradiation Therapy-Related Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer. The Oncologist. 2016: 21:1522-1529.
  7. Ahn AC, Schnyer R, Conboy L, Laufer MR, Wayne PM. Electrodermal measures of Jing-Well points and their clinical relevance in endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009;15(12):1293-1305.
  8. Ahn AC, Colbert AP, Anderson BJ, et al. Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: a systematic review. 2008;29(4):245-256.
  9. Langevin HM, Schnyer R, MacPherson H, et al. Manual and electrical needle stimulation in acupuncture research: pitfalls and challenges of heterogeneity. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2015;21(3):113-128.
  10. Langevin HM, Wayne PM, Macpherson H, et al. Paradoxes in acupuncture research: strategies for moving forward. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011:180805.
  11. MacPherson H, Coeytaux RR, Davis R, Harris RE, Kong JT, Langevin H, Lao L, Milley RJ, Napadow V, Schnyer RN, Stener-Victorin E, Witt CM, Wayne PM. Unanticipated insights into biomedicine from the study of acupuncture Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2015; In Press.
  12. Mao JJ, Davis RT, Coeytaux R, Hullender-Rubin L, Kong JT, MacPherson H, Napadow V, Schnyer R, Wayne PM, Witt C, Harris R. Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: Recommendations to Medicare/Medicaid from the Society for Acupuncture Research. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2019 Apr;25(4):367-369.
  13. Langevin HM, Wayne PM. What is the point? The problem with acupuncture research that no one wants to talk about. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2018;24(3):200-207.
  14. Ma Y, Dong M, Zhou K, Carol M, Liu J, Wayne PM. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20 year Bibliometric Analysis. PLoS One.
  15. Jacobson E, Conboy L, Tsering D, Shields M, McKnight P, Wayne PM, Schnyer R. Experimental Studies of Inter-Rater Agreement in Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic Review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2019 Nov;25(11):1085-1096.
  16. Schnyer RN, McKnight P, Conboy LA, Jacobson E, Ledegza AT, Quilty MT, Davis RB, Wayne PM. Can Reliability of the Chinese Medicine Diagnostic Process be Improved? Results of a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2019 Nov;25(11).